End stage congestive heart failure (CHF) causes intensive lung remodeling beyond the type-2 pulmonary hypertension. CHF induced lung remodeling includes profound lung fibrosis, lung vascular remodeling and lung inflammation. Understanding CHF-induced lung remodeling is also critical to understand the right ventricular failure. However, this area is largely unstudied. Regulating CHF-induced lung remodeling and the underlying mechanism may have dramatic impact to the progression of end-stage CHF and right ventricular failure in almost all of the patients with end-stage CHF.
To deal end-stage CHF will need the team efforts from experts in the field of heart, lung, blood and immunology.