1) Refinement of COPD subphenotypes for therapeutics, diagnostics and mechanistic interrogation. The NIH should encourage a strong focus on a) rigorous, mechanistically-reinforced definitions (chronic bronchitis, emphysema (with and without obstruction), frequent exacerbators, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema) and 2) the development and optimization of animal model systems that replicate the different subphenotypes. ...more »
We need to improve the understanding of the molecular and physiological bases of paracrine signaling of heart, and use the knowledge gained to develop improved, effective approaches to diagnose, treat, and prevent cardiac disorders.
Effective approaches are needed to halt the epidemic of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its associated morbidity.
What kinds of incentives, reforms, and exposures would work best with students from diverse and disadvantaged backgrounds to pursue careers in science?
Congressional eagerness to see research funding translate into improvements in health care may make studies that address “how-to-deliver-care-questions” seem attractive. But the answers to “how–questions” are often so context dependent that the findings are neither generalizable nor durable. The answers to “how–questions” too often become obsolete when the health-care system, the electronic medical record, or the insurance ...more »
The current generation of heart,lung, and blood investigators are not equipped with competitive training needed to approach, design, and test appropriately small molecule therapeutics that may move through the FDA pipeline. Appropriate in silico ligan or structure based design, HTS, design of Pd/Pk models, "go-no-go" branchpoints in drug development, screening approaches, and drug target validation are issues that are ...more »