What is the influence of the microbiome on the immune system and other development processes across the normal human lifespan?
It has become increasingly clear that gut microbiota have a tremendous impact on human health and disease. While it is well known that commensal gut bacteria are crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis in the intestine, there is also evidence of indirect effects on the lung. Multiple studies have shown that alterations in gut microbiota can lead to severe defects in pulmonary immune responses and reduced ability to ...more »
How does the lung microbiome shape its innate immunity? Is there a commensal immune system in the lung? Is the lung microbiome metabolically active?
What are the unknown elements of the human virome, and what host-virome interactions affect the heart, lung, and blood health and diseases? A major challenge has been the need for in vitro culture systems and animal models for studying the virome, which is a significant limitation that has forced current studies of the virome to be mostly descriptive. NHLBI has supported one research group to identify human virome and ...more »
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients in the USA, affecting particularly young children and the elderly. A hallmark of septic shock patients upon diagnosis is peripheral blood cytopenia. This persistent cytopenia commonly affects myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid lineages resulting in immunosuppression and is a well-established predictor of fatal outcome. Clinical trials targeting the production ...more »