Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Submitted by (@lekurlandsky)

Can transcutaneous carboxyhemoglobin measure endogenous heme oxygenase activity?

Non-invasive measurement of transcutaneous carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) by CO-oximetry has been shown to reflect disease activity in asthma, allergic rhinitis, Staphylococcal pneumonia/sepsis and to correlate positively with lung function in cystic fibrosis. Given published studies of heme oxygenase activity in these diseases as a reflection of oxidant or inflammatory activity, does measurement of SpCO reflect endogenous ...more »

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Submitted by (@greg.martin)

Effect of obesity on recovery of lung function in pediatric survivors of critical illness

What are the determinants of persistent respiratory failure in children? Are obese children at greater risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation than non-obese children? Does BMI affect the time to recovery of lung function in obese children with ARDS? What is the pathogenesis and molecular contributors of obesity on respiratory failure in critical illness?

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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Submitted by (@rsackstein)

How can we make cell therapy most effective?

In order to achieve the enormous promise of cell-based therapies (including stem cell-based therapies and adoptive cellular immunotherapies), we need to get the relevant cells to the sites where they are needed. Cell migration is critically dependent on expression of cell surface glycans that mediate adhesion between circulating cells and target tissue endothelial cells. We need to optimize these adhesive interactions ...more »

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Submitted by (@amtager)

Fibrosis Across Organs: Bringing Together Investigators of Fibrosis of the Heart, Lungs and Bone Marrow

Fibrosis can affect essentially any tissue or organ, including the heart, lungs and bone marrow. Effective anti-fibrotic therapy has long been elusive, and transplantation has been the only therapy capable of restoring patient function as fibrotic diseases progress to organ failure. Although these diseases present clinically with organ-specific manifestations, they are now thought to share many common pathogenetic mechanisms. ...more »

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Submitted by (@greg.martin)

Diaphragmatic dysfunction in critical illness

Diaphragmatic dysfunction occurs more frequently than clinically recognized in the setting of acute critical illness or injury. This contributes to both incipient and prolonged respiratory failure, as well as the growth of long-term acute care/rehab hospitalizations. We need a better understanding of the mechanisms of dysfunction as well as strategies to mitigate loss of diaphragmatic muscle mass, ultimately leading ...more »

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Submitted by (@brent.palmer)

Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Pulmonary Immunity in HIV-Infected Individuals

It has become increasingly clear that gut microbiota have a tremendous impact on human health and disease. While it is well known that commensal gut bacteria are crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis in the intestine, there is also evidence of indirect effects on the lung. Multiple studies have shown that alterations in gut microbiota can lead to severe defects in pulmonary immune responses and reduced ability to ...more »

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Goal 1: Promote Human Health

Submitted by (@gcioffi)

Continued focus on mechanism of Red Cell Production

Recent murine studies and early phase clinical trials demonstrate that pharmacologic “traps” for TGF-beta family members may stimulate erythropoiesis in non-erythropoietin-dependent mechanisms. The molecular details of this process remain to be elucidated. Better understanding of this process, which may markedly decrease the marrow problem of “ineffective erythropoiesis,” may lead to improved therapies in thalassemia, ...more »

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Submitted by (@tcooper)

The relationship between genetic variation and disease mechanisms

What is the contribution of individual differences in RNA processing to disease causation, disease modification, disease susceptibility, and positive or negative responses to therapies? Studies using genome sequencing combined with RNA-seq have determined that genetic variation affects regulation of RNA processing as frequently as transcriptional regulation. While transcriptional networks are well defined in heart development ...more »

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