What is the measureable normal human variation at the -omic, cellular, organ, and system levels within the population and across the lifespan?
• What are the range of normal human cellular functions that create resilience at all levels—cells, organs, organ systems?
• What inter-organ, tissue, and cellular communications maintain individual health and the health of populations?
• How do we understand why individuals with the same genetic risk and/or environmental exposures have differing susceptibility to disease? (COPD and smoking, sickle cell disease, IPF) What factors render individuals or populations susceptible or resilient?
• What are the processes and genes that prevent or ameliorate disease in susceptible patients?