In the current environment, NIH reviewers actually deter, rather than promote, progress on proposed pre-clinical animal research that is most likely to rapidly translate into clinical breakthroughs in the short term. Scientists should be allowed to focus on critical missing information (roadblocks) needed to accelerate a promising treatment to clinical trials. For instance, at the NHLBI there is currently no study section friendly to using small rodent models of heart disease to set the stage for a clinical trial (e.g. Does the treatment improve pathophysiology and reduce mortality? Has an effective and translatable treatment/monitoring protocol been verified?).