Showing 6 ideas for tag "analysis"

Goal 4: Develop Workforce and Resources

Credible Data and Analysis of the Biomedical Research Workforce

There is a need for sensible policies that require collection and scientific analysis of credible data relating to the biomedical workforce. The data currently available are weak – for example no one knows, to a factor of 2X, the actual number of postdocs in the United States. The absence of credible human resource and labor market data on the biomedical research workforce is very surprising. NIH could contribute greatly... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

NIH has begun to develop its own capacity for such data collection and analysis, a very positive step. In addition, NIH may wish to consider modest research grant funding for research on the biomedical workforce by academic labor economists.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Michael S. Teitelbaum

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Quantitative imaging biomarkers for chronic lung disease

Critical Challenge

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Methods for stratifying patients with diffuse lung disease are crucial for predicting their clinical course and directing appropriate therapies accordingly. Currently imaging markers for prognostic stratification are limited, due to observer variability in characterizing the type and degree of computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. A reproducible method for categorizing varying diffuse lung diseases on CT imaging is needed, particularly in combination with other biomarkers in a multidisciplinary approach. With lung cancer screening, the characterization and stratification of patients with varying COPD phenotypes and interstitial lung disease are essential to aid in management of the large number of patients who currently satisfy criteria for CT lung cancer screening.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Currently the classification of diffuse lung disease on CT is based upon visual evaluation and qualitative or semi-quantitative evaluation of CT data. Diffuse lung disease manifests with varying CT findings and distribution within the lung. Computer-assisted tools for quantifying airways and parenchymal disease have been developed. More-sophisticated quantitative computer image-analysis methods, such as those that address three-dimensional spatial orientation, are possible given advances in computer capabilities yet remain in need of further development. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MR) technology, positron emission tomography (PET), and PET/MR will increase the ability to characterize diffuse lung disease quantitatively. The ability of such technology to differentiate subtypes within more frequently occurring and clinically-significant diffuse lung disease is feasible. Such tools would impact a large population, particularly given the potential need to phenotype emphysema and smoking-related interstitial pneumonias in those undergoing CT screening.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Society of Thoracic Radiology

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Imaging indicators of metabolic syndrome and cardiopulmonary disease

Critical Challenge

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Obesity and metabolic syndrome affect a large portion of the population and affects multiple organ systems. Identifying obesity phenotypes by imaging will impact the significant healthcare issue presented by MetS and could provide a reliable, non-invasive index of disease severity, guide prevention and intervention response.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Metabolic syndrome, abnormal metabolism, may be potentially linked to obesity and cardiopulmonary disease. Theories exist but are in need of clarification. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and multiple other diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease, coronary atherosclerosis, and obesity warrants further investigation and can be elucidated through imaging. Advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) enable assessment of the cardiopulmonary manifestations, with promising MR techniques to complement high-resolution imaging data achievable with chest CT and coronary CT angiography. Assessment of CT and MR techniques in combination with three-dimensional quantitative analysis of manifestations of metabolic syndrome such as fat deposits derived from different adipocytes (white fat versus brown fat) such as in the subcutaneous, visceral, epicardial, and perivascular regions is feasible with current technology and may enable differentiation of those with varying risks of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. The association of imaging parameters, metabolic syndrome, and associated diseases are in need of investigation, and knowledge gained may prove crucial for identifying those at risk for metabolic syndrome and at higher risk for complications in the large population of our country affected by obesity.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Society of Thoracic Radiology

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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Advancing translational research requires timely in-depth analysis of large datasets

1. NHLBI investments over the last decade in terms of genomic approaches have yielded many research findings.
2. Rapid analyses of early data identified the "low hanging" fruit (and perhaps some/many important results were missed); this limited the scope of translation (partly because of relatively limited discovery?)
3. Important data are being generated at much greater rate than the data are processed/analyzed thoughtfully.... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

If we invest in a few multi-disciplinary data analysis centers (integrating biology with statistical genetics) involving active NHLBI participation (cooperative agreements), the massive amounts of data generated at huge cost could be analyzed more thoughtfully if time and resources are made available. This way, we may be able to identify many more research findings of much greater potential for translation.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

It is feasible to pursue this challenge through cooperative agreements whereby NHLBI scientists can actively participate and ensure that strategic investing is following strategic paths for deep discovery.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea DC Rao

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Develop and apply single-cell-based assays to verify/modify existing biological theories

Many biological models developed to date are based on studies using heterogeneous cell populations. For example, ChIP-Seq studies have shown that RNA Pol II is frequently paused near promotes and that in stem cells, developmentally poised genes are controlled by bivalent enhancers. These studies are largely based on statistical analyses of average ChIP-Seq reads from millions of cells. Earlier biochemical analysis of... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

It will also be helpful to develop bioinformatic methods for quantitative analysis of the single-cell-derived results. Using these assays, it will be possible to reveal time-dependent kinetic regulation of transcription in normal and diseased cells. The outcome may revolutionize our current understanding of transcriptional regulation occurring in healthy and diseased cells, thereby benefiting the treatment of human diseases.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Jinsong Zhang

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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Point of care detection of rare cells in blood

Laboratory analyses at the bedside or in the hinterlands can reduce the cost and increase the capture of disease states in underserved populations. The injection of a blood draw directly into a portable device that requires no further operator interventions is a Critical Challenge. With today’s automated chemistry and a miniaturized flow cytometer this challenge could be met.

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Although portable flow cytometers exist, they are not equipped with chemical automation and rare-cell enrichment capability. An integrated system could be applied to multiple diagnostic goals. A sufficiently versatile design should be able to detect and enumerate specific cell populations at any level (not only rare cells) in the circulation — T-cell subsets in AIDS, for example.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Automated mixing and labeling, magnetic bioseparations, microfluidics, high-intensity LEDs and sensitive avalanche photodiodes can be combined to address this CC.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Paul Todd

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