Showing 63 ideas for tag "health"

Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Obesity and health inequities

What are the most effective weight loss/weight gain prevention strategies for high risk groups?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Effective obesity interventions for high risk groups would help reduce health disparities.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

This CQ is feasible because there are significant data that shows that health disparities exist and should be addressed.
Currently two thirds of Americans are either overweight or obese and obesity disproportionately affects individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. To date there have been few, well designed trials that target high risk groups and it is still unclear what are the most effective strategies to prevent obesity and promote weight loss among ethnic minorities and low-income populations. For instance, the prevalence of obesity is highest among Mexican American boys (compared to white and African American boys; Ogden 2014), yet there are few (if any) trials targeting this high risk group.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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113 up votes
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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Health Behavior Change in Vulnerable Individuals

What knowledge about health behavior change can be leveraged to design innovative and effective strategies for behavior change among the most vulnerable individuals?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Significant health disparities exist in part because primary and secondary prevention strategies are not optimal for particularly vulnerable populations, who often grapple with multiple co-morbidities and low resources. Improving health promotion efforts by targeting health behaviors could help to close the disparity gap.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Many health damaging behaviors, such as smoking, are much more prevalent in certain groups than in the population at large. Multi-level efforts to promote health behavior change have not been optimally effective in these vulnerable groups. We need to build on what we know, understand the gaps, and develop new, culturally sensitive behavior change intervention strategies that will be effective for all groups.
Multi-level strategies to change health-damaging behaviors are effective for some behaviors, but tend to be least effective for the most vulnerable populations. For example, the percentage of people who smoke has decreased dramatically in the last 60 years, but significantly less so for racial and ethnic minorities, those with mental health issues, low income groups, and other vulnerable individuals. These differences contribute to health disparities among these groups, and are in part due to the need for multiple risk reduction and for strategies that are culturally informed.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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58 net votes
80 up votes
22 down votes
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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Can Psychological Science Improve Weight Loss?

Will sensitivity to the psychological aspects of obesity, including lifestyle priorities and motivations, improve the efficacy of long-term effectiveness of weight loss and obesity prevention interventions?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

A primary focus on principles of psychology may result in significantly improved control of the obesity epidemic. Effective interventions could reduce the risk of diabetes, sleep apnea, and hypertension. This research could also affect clinical practice guidelines for weight loss and obesity treatment.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Psychological science has been successful in developing effective treatments for a number of conditions, including sleep disorders, depressive symptoms, anxiety and phobias. Many of the behavioral principles employed in such interventions (e.g., cognitive restructuring, motivational methods) could be translated for the prevention and treatment of obesity within a reasonable time frame. Additional attention should be directed to the needs of population subgroups in which obesity is most prevalent.
In their Viewpoint article on weight loss intervention research, Pagoto and Appelhans (JAMA, 2013, see attachment) question whether a continued focus on dietary factors in research on weight loss and obesity is warranted. Their commentary raises the importance of attention to the individual psychological characteristics that influence adherence to weight loss interventions rather than dietary composition.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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51 net votes
104 up votes
53 down votes
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Goal 1: Promote Human Health

Studying Health in Addition to Disease

Why do some people stop smoking after a stroke or myocardial infarction, whereas others do not? What motivates people who adopt a healthier diet and exercise program during their lifetime or after a significant health event? How can we promote healthier lifestyle choices at all stages of life? How do we ensure equitable health promoting activities for minorities, vulnerable populations, and lower socio-economic status... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Answering this critical question would enable us to have a more complete picture both of disease and of health.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

It is feasible to address this critical question because we need to expand our understanding of how people remain healthy or regain health, especially given the unhappy statistics concerning obesity, physical activity, blood pressure, diabetes, etc.
Few would disagree with the importance of studying the epidemiology, mechanisms, and progression of disease: research is focused on preventing or curing diseases. In addition to this disease-focused model, there are untapped opportunities to examine health and wellness. Borrowing from the field of Positive Psychology, which is the study of the aspects or characteristics of mental health (e.g., the strengths, values, behavior that contribute to well-being), we can expand this idea to study the aspects of those who remain healthy, who have retained health after disease, or who have successfully made healthy lifestyle changes. In terms of obesity, an example of this idea is Rena Wing’s National Weight Control Registry, which studies individuals who have successfully maintained long-term weight loss.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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135 net votes
176 up votes
41 down votes
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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

HEALTH CARE DISPARITIES IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF COMMON SLEEP AND CIRCADIAN DISORDERS

There is evidence of a higher prevalence of sleep and circadian disorders in different ethnic groups. This is true for both adult and pediatric subjects. There is also evidence that minority populations in lower socioeconomic groups do not seek evaluation for sleep disorders as frequently as other segments of our population. There is also evidence that they are less adherent to treatments such as nasal CPAP for obstructive... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Sleep disorders are more common in minority populations. Moreover, these populations have higher rates of the known consequences of these disorders such as stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, resistant hypertension. Despite this, current population studies such as the Sleep Heart Health Study have included only a very small percentage of African Americans. The impact of this would be the following:

a. Elucidating the basis of barriers to case identification in these group
b. Designing specific intervention to overcome these barriers.
c. Developing methods to improve adherence to therapy in this group.
d. Removing sleep and circadian disorders as a risk factor for consequences such as stroke, cardiovascular disease and resistant hypertension in minority populations

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

There is a developing interest in this area in the field of circadian and sleep research. There is a developing knowledge base about health disparities in sleep and circadian disorders. Minority institutions such as Morehouse have developing programs in this area. We also have mobile technology that facilitates study of sleep and circadian disorders in minority populations.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Sleep Research Society

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118 net votes
163 up votes
45 down votes
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Goal 1: Promote Human Health

ROLE OF HEALTH DISPARITIES IN SLEEP AND CIRCADIAN HEALTH—ENVIRONMENT

Self-report data indicate that insufficient sleep is more common in minority populations. This seems to be related to socioeconomic status. There is a need to move this beyond self-report and obtain objective measures in the relevant populations. Moreover, the basis of this difference needs to be established. What aspect of the environment leads to these differences, e.g., noise, stress related to sense of vulnerability,... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Self-report indicates that sleep duration is lower in minority populations. This seems to be related to socioeconomic groups. To address this issue requires understanding the basis of this and developing appropriate interventions.

The impact of this is as follows:

a. Implementing new technology based on mobile approaches to assess sleep duration in subjects in different socioeconomic groups.
b. Developing a comprehensive approach to understanding and evaluating environmental influences in sleep and circadian rhythm.
c. Designing and testing intervention to increase sleep duration in disadvantaged populations.
d. Improving the sleep health of minority populations.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

There is rapidly developing new mobile technology to assess sleep duration and other phenotypes in individuals living in their normal lives. There are a number of studies currently being conducted that could be leveraged to address this question. There are also developing approaches to assess environmental influences on sleep and circadian rhythm such as noise, light exposure, etc. Thus, this question could be addressed in the near future.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Sleep Research Society

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122 net votes
173 up votes
51 down votes
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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Use of health communication principles in management of obesity

What approaches can utilize current knowledge on health literacy/health communications as a research development tool and/or strategy to enhance obesity prevention and treatment efforts?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Allow the use of non-activity and non-dietary based approaches for managing overweight and obesity

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Health communication and health literacy are of interest in the US Healthy People 2020 goals. The methodology and principles of health communications and the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes are emerging especially for obesity. There is a sufficient pool of scientists trained to conduct this type of work.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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22 net votes
49 up votes
27 down votes
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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Interventions to Eliminate Health Inequities

There is a need to identify effective interventions for heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases that could have a transformative population level impact on health inequities if expanded at the national level.

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

• Provide new knowledge for implementing strategies that will tackle inequities
• Provides opportunity to create multidiscipline research communities focused on health inequities
• Will gain momentum from federal and national implementation institutions to promote effective interventions to address health inequities

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

• Capitalizing on new methods, metrics and tapping big data could provide a promising platform to use systems science to better understand the barriers to eliminating health inequities in a short timeframe
• Identifying barriers will allow investigators to devise innovative implementation strategies that can reduce health inequities
• NHLBI could encourage communities of researchers to use team science to both identify barriers and link with other teams to implement strategies to reduce and eliminate barriers
• Established NHLBI health inequities Think Tank and space for developing innovative strategies to address health inequities.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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32 net votes
47 up votes
15 down votes
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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Using Social Media to Promote Healthy Behaviors

Since most people know that there are behaviors that they need to do to be healthy, can we leverage peer or family pressure or use social media to create a “grass roots” groundswell of health-promoting behaviors?

How might social media platforms such as Facebook and Meetup.com be leveraged for designing low-cost research studies and interventions that promote sustainable healthy lifestyle and behaviors?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Given the massive use of mobile devices and social media in our society, engaging this critical challenge would have a significant impact on our understanding how this technology can be used in disease prevention and health promotion.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

It is feasible, timely, and cost-effective to study and incorporate into our interventions the use of social media because these applications are already so widely used.
Even if people haven’t memorized the American Heart Association’s seven factors related to heart health (get active, control cholesterol, eat better, manage blood pressure, lose weight, reduce blood sugar, stop smoking), most know that these are the behaviors that they need to do to be healthy. Despite this knowledge, heart disease is still the leading cause of death in the United States; about 1 in 3 U.S. adults has high blood pressure; diabetes affects nearly 26 million in the U.S.; and about 19% of U.S. adults are smokers. According to the CDC, in 2011 over 50% of those 18 years of age or older did not meet the recommended goal for aerobic exercise (150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity activity such as walking). Obesity is an epidemic: about one-third of American adults are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). People know what to do, but why don’t they do it? Our built environments and culture do not intrinsically promote a healthy lifestyle. In the absence of a culture that promotes walking or biking over driving cars and that promotes fast and fattening food over more healthy food choices, can we use peer networks to promote healthy behaviors? For example, Meetup.com is a tool that people use to meet for activities that include hiking, tennis, and physical fitness boot camps.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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17 net votes
52 up votes
35 down votes
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Goal 1: Promote Human Health

Qigong and Tai Chi for Chronic Disease Prevention

Non-pharmacological interventions for pain and stress have gained tremendous momentum.

Mind-Body Practice -- Qigong and Tai Chi -- are group based and inexpensive to implement. The evidence base suggests that these practices are safe and effective for a multitude of preventable chronic disorders..

THE QUESTION:
Given safety and efficacy, should there be vigorous research on implementation of Qigong and Tai Chi and... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

What can we do to assure that safe, effective, inexpensive non-parmacological approaches like Qigong and Tai Chi become widely diffused into communities, agencies, organizations, schools, health systems and businesses.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

We have participated in a number of studies that have contributed to the evidence base for Mind-Body Practice as a safe and effective non-pharmacological programming.

The key -- group based. For the financing, group based is inexpensive. For the efficacy group based supports compliance.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Dr Roger Jahnke, http://IIQTC.org

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2 net votes
33 up votes
31 down votes
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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Develop common-sense standards for obesity research

Obesity research is riddled with methodological problems that are rarely challenged, leading to the perpetuation of misinformation and interventions that do harm. Given the two-thirds of the population who are classified as higher weight and thus subject to these interventions, it is past time to clean up the basic scientific flaws in this research area.

For a quick summary of a couple of these issues, see Poodle Science:... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

This subject really is both CG and CC. The CQ aspect is to see past the weight bias and stigma we are all subject to in order to see diversity of weight as normal, even as people across the weight spectrum suffer health insults from sources that are rarely investigated within the medical model (cf social determinants of health). The CC aspect is the enormous economic and cultural pressures to maintain the valuing of some bodies over others in order to sell products and create a group of people who have fewer ways to defend themselves from oppression.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Several key areas could make a big difference and they are quite feasible.

  1. Require researchers to have studied weight bias and stigma so they are more aware of their own potential proclivities to frame research questions or results according to the status quo.
  2. Require any study that claims a weight loss finding to have, report, and publish followup data on all participants at least 2-5 years post-intervention.
  3. Require any study claiming a health issue related to weight to compare not higher and lower weight people, but rather higher weight people who have pursued weight loss and higher weight people who have not, since there is no way for higher weight people to be always-been-thinner.
  4. Require weight/health research to control for obvious confounders such as weight cycling, SES, exposure to weight stigma, exposure to weight discrimination, exposure to racism, exposure to stress, lack of access to unbiased medical care, etc.
  5. Require that journals allowing statements in the abstract or discussion or conclusions that generalize beyond the data be accountable, and that journals provide an accurate translation of the findings for journalists complete with statements about limitations of findings and possible alternative interpretations.
  6. Fund projects which are about listening, especially to people who are rarely asked about their lived experience, in order to generate better research that actually improves quality of life for higher-weight people.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Deb Burgard, PhD

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24 net votes
44 up votes
20 down votes
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Goal 1: Promote Human Health

Human normal variation and resilience across lifespan

What is the measureable normal human variation at the -omic, cellular, organ, and system levels within the population and across the lifespan?
• What are the range of normal human cellular functions that create resilience at all levels—cells, organs, organ systems?
• What inter-organ, tissue, and cellular communications maintain individual health and the health of populations?
• How do we understand why individuals with... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

• Will provide a better definition of what is normal in order to better interpret and exploit the big data available through increased personalized monitoring and use of EMRs.
• Insights into the underlying mechanisms of resilient phenotypes will provide new paradigms for disease prevention and treatment.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Feasibility will depend on the level of investment (large) and accessibility to commons data.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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19 net votes
26 up votes
7 down votes
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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Seeking the secret behind “resilience” to a variety of HLBS diseases

What is the secret behind the “resilience” some people have to heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Results of such research should reveal physiological mechanisms of resilience that could be used to develop interventions that would prevent or cure a variety of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Advances in omics, clinical testing
, accumulation of large sets of clinical data and samples
, big data tools
, and increased interest from public (normal volunteers) and patients to participate in large scientific experiments make it feasible.
For instance, these may be healthy people carrying genetic mutations strongly associated with HLBS diseases (or causing rare/familial genetic diseases – these might easier to focus on first), but also people who are not hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic, or diabetic in spite of consistently making bad dietary choices, people who did not develop lung conditions in spite of high pollutant exposure, or are otherwise “protected” from other heart, lung, blood and sleep diseases. This reasoning is not very different from that used to identify ApoA Milano, or even PCSK9 or the “longevity genes”. Such information should reveal physiological mechanisms that could be leveraged to develop interventions to prevent or cure HLBS diseases.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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19 net votes
26 up votes
7 down votes
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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Implementation science research to reduce adverse effects of SCD

From various publications and reports, we have characterized the risks associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) and understand many of the barriers for treatment of SCD in LMICs. How can implementation science research be used to reduce the negative outcomes of SCD in low/middle income countries?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

• Reduction of deaths and negative outcomes associated with SCD and in LMICs
• Provide the evidence base that supports culturally relevant implementation strategies that reduce deaths associated with SCD in LIMCs

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

• Yes
, this is feasible
• Common goals and deliverables between NHLBI and partners will need to be identified
• Partnerships can be with international organizations, Ministries of Health and other partners

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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18 net votes
31 up votes
13 down votes
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Goal 3: Advance Translational Research

Treating cardiovascular disease in persons with mental health disorders

How can we most effectively prevent and treat cardiovascular disease among persons with serious mental disorders?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Clinical anxiety disorders affects 40 million people in the US and the lifetime prevalence of PTSD is 6-8%,. The incidence of PTSD in particular is rapidly expanding in the US; this condition doubles the risk of a cardiac event.

The prevalence rates are higher in some populations; 3 out of 10 US military veterans have a diagnosis of PTSD, and many more are undiagnosed. Among patients at a VA, a diagnosis of PTSD increased the probability of circulatory problems (odds ratio 3.7). In another study, every additional PTSD symptom increased the risk of developing cardiovascular disease by 17%. Thus, the impact of developing more effective treatments adapted to the needs of this vulnerable population could be significant.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

As the incidence of many mental health disorders such as PTSD and depression increases, the need for developing and adapting treatments for this population becomes critical.

Effective treatments may not be optimal for persons with serious mental illnesses and strategies to tailor treatments to the challenges of this vulnerable population are needed.
Individuals with mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders are at significantly higher risk for cardiovascular disease than are those without these illnesses. Those with serious mental illnesses die an average of 25 years earlier, frequently from cardiovascular disease. The incidence of PTSD is rapidly expanding in the US; this condition doubles the risk of cardiovascular events.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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19 net votes
30 up votes
11 down votes
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