There is a need to promote sex balance in research. We know that existing and emerging scientific evidence supports the notion that sex is a major determinant for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Thus, expansion of resources for relevant animal models of disease, and the creation of databases that collect sex as a biological variable are important for both pre-clinical and clinical studies.
There is a need to better understand the biological basis for sex differences, particularly for identifying important basic factors that influence normal cardiovascular function and cardiovascular disease in males or females and explain differences in the overall prevalence, progression, and mechanism of cardiovascular disease.
What molecular and cellular pathways explain the sex-specific differences in the prevalence, severity, and progression of lung diseases?
Precision medicine will be invested in across NIH, as per the President's "Precision Medicine Initiative". It is critical that the population base be reflective of the US population, including 50% women. Gender, especially as it relates to exposures, must be a dominant consideration, as these factors are critical to the development of human disease and therefore will be important to prevention.