Showing 6 ideas for tag "basic"

Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Behavior change labs: an interdisciplinary team approach

Will integration of behavior science in clinical research improve effectiveness of interventions for HLBS diseases associated with behavioral risk factors?

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Currently, there is no industry support for T1 (basic to clinical) behavioral research and therefore little incentive for basic and clinical behavioral scientists to work together to develop and test new, innovative strategies for changing HLBS-related behaviors based on basic behavioral science findings on motivation, perception, cognition and social relationships. Bringing together collaborative, interdisciplinary teams of basic behavioral scientists and clinically-oriented behavioral researchers could spur development and testing of innovative new approaches to difficult HLBS-related behavioral problems such as obesity, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, smoking and non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic HLBS regimens.

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New research in the behavioral sciences is elucidating the basic psychological, cognitive, social and behavioral processes underlying behavior and behavior change. Findings in this area could be developed into new strategies targeting problematic HLBS-related behaviors, but a mechanism for developing and testing novel ideas is needed. Networks designed to bring together basic and clinically-oriented behavioral researchers can enable better understanding of the bases of HLBS-related behaviors and accelerate the translation of findings into new approaches.
Adopting and maintaining healthy habits and lifestyles – such as eating healthy diets, engaging in regular physical activity, stopping smoking, and regularly taking prescribed medications – are crucial to heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) health (Akesson et al, 2014; Mozaffarian, 2014). However, for most people, engaging in and maintaining a healthy lifestyle is challenging. Interventions designed to promote behavior change have had limited success, often influencing individuals over the short-term but failing to alter behaviors over longer periods of time, which is necessary to realizing the full benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Underlying the problematic behaviors associated with HLBS-related behavioral risk factors are fundamental psychological, motivational, cognitive and social processes that represent promising targets for the development of new, more effective behavioral interventions. For example, basic behavioral scientists are investigating the role of poor executive function in unhealthy eating behavior and exploring new ways to address the "self-control" failures that lead to impulsive eating.

However, unlike the biomedical arena where the translational pathway from basic science to clinical application is supported by both NIH and industry, there is no industry support and relatively little NIH funding devoted to T1 behavioral research -- i.e., research translating basic behavioral science findings into clinically significant behavioral interventions. As a result, basic behavioral science researchers have little incentive to collaborate with clinical researchers to develop and test novel behavioral treatments. Bringing together collaborative, interdisciplinary teams of basic behavioral scientists and clinically-oriented behavioral researchers could spur development and testing of innovative new approaches to difficult HLBS-related behavioral problems.

A compelling question is how to bring together these disparate researchers over a long enough time frame to enable them to identify, develop and testing new strategies for tackling resistant behavioral problems. One way to address this question is to fund a network of "behavior change labs," each of which brings together teams of basic behavioral scientists who are investigating the bases of behavior and behavior change with clinical researchers interested in designing, optimizing and testing novel ideas for tackling the difficult behavioral problems represented by obesity, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, smoking and non-adherence to medications used to prevent or treat HLBS diseases and disorders.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Basic research

Are we funding enough basic research to support future research?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

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What is the nature of scientific knowledge? Are there enough opportunities for young scientists?

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Funding of young scientists and of generalists is a challenge.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Rachel Braun

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Congential heart defects in diabetic pregnancies: a devastating reality

There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms underlying diabetes-induced congenital heart defects (CHDs) through basic science research and biomarker identification in human maternal circulation. Majority of the current research in CHDs is related to genetic analyses; however, environmental factors contribute to the majority of human CHDs, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. There is 60 million worldwide... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

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More than 32,000 infants are born with heart defects each year in the United States, and about 1 in 150 adults are expected to have some form of congenital heart defect. Approximately, 25% of infants born with heart defects (2.4 per 1,000 live births) require invasive treatment in the first year of life, and in 2009 heart defects were the most common cause of infant death. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of abnormal heart formation is an essential step towards developing effective new therapeutic treatments or preventions for heart defects. Using diabetes-induced CHDs as research models will reveal critical molecular pathways that contributes to heart cell proliferation and apoptosis.

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The same types of heart defects seen in human diabetic pregnancies can be recapitulated in diabetic animal models, making rodents ideal models to investigate how maternal hyperglycemia may induce congenital heart defects. Dietary supplements of natural compounds may be effective against CHDs in diabetic pregnancies. Clinically, new imaging techniques needs be developed for the early diagnosis of CHDs in diabetic pregnancies. Biomarkers in human blood samples needs be detailed analyzed so that we can use small molecules such as microRNA for reliable and early diagnosis.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Peixin Yang

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Heart Failure Therapies

We need much more support for critical basic research to understand and develop transformative therapies for this enormous health care burden. This is not simply a question of epidemiology and large multicenter population data bases. We really need hard core science. It is impossible to know where the next breakthrough will come, and setting aside funds for hot button things - stem cells, or iPS, or gene editing per... more »

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NIH needs to stop trying to guess what the next big thing is and putting funds aside to support something that is popular at the moment. This has been done frankly with GWAS, with Stem cells, and perhaps ongoing now with "personalized medicine". All hot areas, but so are a ton of other things. IN my 30 years as a physician scientist, I cannot count on one hand the number of discoveries that were really transformative that came out of this type of ear-marked planning. Need more resources to support innovative individual scientists, particularly those with a track record of discovery, translation, and iinnovation We do not do that well enough at all.

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Basic Research for HIV/AIDS and HLB Health and Diseases

What HIV/AIDS-related basic research can NHLBI support in the next 5-10 years to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of HIV-related heart, lung, and/or blood (HLB) diseases alone and in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to improve heart, lung, and blood health outcomes in HIV infections as well as the fundamental mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in potential elimination or eradication... more »

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Widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed the epidemiology of AIDS. HIV-infected patients on ART can expect to live for many decades, but now chronic diseases are increasingly replacing acute infections as important causes of morbidity and death. A growing body of evidence suggests that HIV may alter and/or accelerate the natural history of fundamental processes underlying atherosclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary co-infections, anemia, coagulation, thrombotic disorders, and immune senescence.

 

 

However, the mechanisms by which HIV and ART may modify these processes have not been fully elucidated, primarily because of the multiple direct and indirect pathways by which HIV and ART induce cellular dysfunction. Advancing knowledge of which cell types are affected by HIV (and serve as reservoirs), as well as increased understanding of the vital interactions between HIV and the host cells as well as interactions between HIV and other elements of the human virome and the broader microbiome is essential to elucidating the pathogenesis of HIV-related HLB diseases.
The use of basic research models will complement and extend the results of clinical studies.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

For HIV infection and heart, lung, and blood health and diseases:
• NHLBI investments in this aspect, including the three RFAs in 2014-2015, two on basic research and one on clinical research, have laid good foundation.
• Collaborations between HIV investigators and HLB investigators that have been facilitated by the NHLBI investments including the three RFAs.
• The Berlin patient has provided the proof of concept that HIV infection can be eradicated, that is, sterilizing cure can be achieved, through HSC transplantation in combination with other therapies.
• New technologies that have been developed recently, such as the deep sequencing techniques and research supported by the NIH Human Microbiome Program and other programs have allowed us to better understand microbiome, especially bacteria in and on humans, and we began to realize the magnitude of the human virome.

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For HLB comorbidities of HIV infection, the challenges include:

• Closer collaboration between HIV investigators and HLB investigators;

• Leverage of resources available both in HIV research and in HLB research.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Basic Research & Precision Medicine

How can NHLBI best encourage basic research areas that are critical to the development of precision medicine approaches for lung disease?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

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