Showing 5 ideas for tag "gender"

Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Mechanisms for sex-specific differences in lung diseases

What molecular and cellular pathways explain the sex-specific differences in the prevalence, severity, and progression of lung diseases?

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

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Understanding the molecular and cellular bases of differences in prevalence and outcomes of lung diseases will offer insight into disease mechanisms and help to address disease disparities. Some potential bases for disparities, such as differences in hormone levels between men and women, could potentially be therapeutically modulated to mitigate the effects of disease.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

The increased understanding of lung cell biology, along with a renewed focus on sex and gender differences, make this the perfect time to start addressing these questions.
Multiple diseases affecting the lung, such as LAM (lymphangioleiomyomatosis), sarcoidosis, asthma, and COPD, have distinct prevalence or associated mortality in a sex-dependent manner. The reasons for these differences are still unknown.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea NHLBI Staff

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

The importance of cosidering sex and gender in presicion medicine

Precision medicine will be invested in across NIH, as per the President's "Precision Medicine Initiative". It is critical that the population base be reflective of the US population, including 50% women. Gender, especially as it relates to exposures, must be a dominant consideration, as these factors are critical to the development of human disease and therefore will be important to prevention.

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

Precision medicine that can be applied accurately to different groups within o our population, in particular women and racial and ethnic minorities.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Achieving this goal is feasible and essential.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Paula Johnson

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Identify Pathways of Risk Linking Psychosocial Stress to Ischemic Heart Disease in Women

Women differ from men in their manifestations of ischemic heart disease (IHD). They also differ from men with respect to prevalence of psychosocial factors and vulnerability to specific mental disorders. Young women, in particular, appear to be highly susceptible to the adverse cardiovascular effects of psychosocial stress. Those who already have clinical manifestations of IHD display high psychosocial burden which could... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

The study of young women from the community, and women with early-onset IHD, could be critical in uncovering women-specific pathways of IHD risk related to psychosocial stress. Investigations of the association between psychosocial factors and IHD should include sufficient numbers of young and middle-aged adults, and rather than only adjusting for sex, should conduct analyses stratified by sex. If psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for early-onset IHD in women, then psychosocial interventions specifically tailored to address women’s stressors and applied early in women’s lives should be especially helpful in improving or reverting IHD risk in this group. Most psychosocial or drug treatment interventions for depression have not been effective for improving IHD outcomes particularly among women, suggesting that more attention should be given to psychosocial pathways specific for women and to the identification of vulnerable subsets.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Calls for proposals for mechanistic studies and intervention trials targeted to young women and men at risk for IHD or sampled according to different exposure levels should be a feasible starting point to investigate this area and begin identifying vulnerable subgroups and sex differences.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Viola Vaccarino

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Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

Environmental induction of congenital heart defects and finding means of prevention

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) continue to be the leading cause of death among all infants with birth defects. It is reported that approximately 10% of cardiac congenital anomalies have a genetic basis. An equal percentage, or ~10%, is due to environmental factors. For ~60% the etiology is unknown and considered to have a multifactorial basis, eg, environmental agents having a role against a specific genetic background,... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

College drinking is up especially among young women. Women of both high and low income levels drink, may be smoking marijuana, or are exposed to other environmental toxicants. Are there gender effects, as it has been reported that in the US, more male babies undergo severe cardiac surgeries than female. Few grants are presently funded that take a teratological approach to understanding mechanisms underlying induction of congenital heart defects that can occur before a women realizes being pregnant. The embryo may already have been harmed by then and the effects last a lifetime for the child. High dose folate may be preventative of CHDs and this needs to be better defined and the effects of high folate doses on the adult and fetus need to be analyzed. A possible role for gender should be defined.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

A recommended goal is to emphasize the submission of grants specifically addressing the etiology of congenital heart defects due to environmental factors and their prevention, using cell and molecular teratological approaches. Reinstate a study section on Teratology and Toxicology of Birth Defects made up of PIs working in those fields. There used to be four such study sections and were all removed years back. One such section should be reinstated. Current study sections lack such individuals on the panels due to this area receiving little funding. The neural field is way ahead in funding this topic and as a result the heart tends not to be mentioned in available literature that is provided to women of child-bearing age. Yet the risk for heart anomalies is equally as high and important as are effects on neural development. Similarly, both have lifelong consequences for the individual physically and psychologically and in cost to society with repeating hospitalizations and surgeries. Effects on the heart may be so severe that death occurs already in utero and may not always be counted among the epidemiological studies.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Kersti K. Linask, PhD

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