What molecular and cellular pathways explain the sex-specific differences in the prevalence, severity, and progression of lung diseases?
Precision medicine will be invested in across NIH, as per the President's "Precision Medicine Initiative". It is critical that the population base be reflective of the US population, including 50% women. Gender, especially as it relates to exposures, must be a dominant consideration, as these factors are critical to the development of human disease and therefore will be important to prevention.
Considering the dearth of research on gender differences, NHLBI should expand the portfolio of opportunities available for studies in this area.