Do different hemoglobin transfusion thresholds alter outcomes in children with ARDS? What is the optimal *minimum* transfusion threshold for children with ARDS? What patient-centered outcomes can be affected by transfusion strategies: ventilator free days, time to organ function recovery, duration of intensive care stay, survival?
Both adults and children have significant morbidity and mortality due to lung injury, but have different etiologies and outcomes. It is possible that the underlying pathobiology in the two groups is different. There are no targeted therapies for lung injury, indicating that the cause is still not understood.
What are the determinants of persistent respiratory failure in children? Are obese children at greater risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation than non-obese children? Does BMI affect the time to recovery of lung function in obese children with ARDS? What is the pathogenesis and molecular contributors of obesity on respiratory failure in critical illness?
Can detailed longitudinal study of lung disease in infancy/early childhood improve our understanding of the origins of obstructive airways disease, and the variation seen in asthma phenotypes and severity?
If NHLBI set research priorities for pediatric cardiomyopathy and heart failure, it would help investigators better align their application with institute goals.