Showing 2 ideas for tag "international"

Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

International collaboration for genetic and metabolic research on specific human population

During recent years, clinical research including well-organized randomized clinical trials in developed countries generated large database and human biological sample banks. These are valuable resources for human disease research. Mechanisms to encourage and facilitate international collaboration for genetic and metabolic research using database and human biological samples from specific human disease population of international... more »

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Critical Challenge (CC)

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang

Voting

4 net votes
4 up votes
0 down votes
Active

Goal 2: Reduce Human Disease

International epidemiological studies with huge contrast

Well-conducted international epidemiological studies with huge contrast of disease outcome and risk factor exposure will provide clues to disease prevention that cannot be obtained by studies solely within the US.

Is this idea a Compelling Question (CQ) or Critical Challenge (CC)? Compelling Question (CQ)

Details on the impact of addressing this CQ or CC

The Seven Countries study in the 1960’s noted a 5-fold difference in CHD between the US and Japan; the low CHD in Japan was largely attributed to very low levels of total cholesterol. Since studies of migrant Japanese to the US in the 1970’s show marked increase in CHD, exposure to more Westernized lifestyle in Japan would cause total cholesterol to rise and CHD to increase. Surprisingly, age-adjusted CHD mortality declined by >50% both in the US and Japan for the past 5 decades. The decline in CHD mortality in the US is attributed to changes in risk factors (decline in total cholesterol, BP, smoking) and improved treatment, whereas Japanese experienced continuous and marked rise in total cholesterol by 50 mg/dl during the past 5 decades. This is despite higher levels of BP and smoking, especially in men, similar levels of lipids and diabetes.

COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the US, of which singular important risk factor is smoking. Rates of cigarette smoking in men in Japan have been 20-30% higher than in men in the US for the past 5 decades. Yet, it is known that COPD mortality in men in Japan is internationally very low: less than a half of the US. First step is to compare the prevalence of COPD with standardized methods between the US and Japan and if COPD prevalence in Japan is much lower than in the US, elucidating some factors responsible for the low COPD rates in Japan might lead to novel preventive ways for this important disease.

Feasibility and challenges of addressing this CQ or CC

Though both the US and Japan have well-established cohort studies, key methods are not generally standardized which makes the comparison difficult. Moreover, standardization of methods is limited by its cost.

Name of idea submitter and other team members who worked on this idea Akira Sekikawa

Voting

1 net vote
2 up votes
1 down votes
Active